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托福阅读    TOEFL Pro forma
托福阅读否定排除题实例讲解
发布日期 :2017.07.28    浏览次数:1773 次


否定排除题是托福每次必考题型,但题量不是很多,通常每篇文章在0-2个左右。


  1.提问方式 (题目中会有NOT或EXCEPT)
这种题目的提问方式通常为:According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of X?The author’s description of X mentions all of the following EXCEPT等等


  2.解题步骤
  1. 看题目,判断题型
  2. 读题干,划关键词
3. 读选项 (这步很关键,先看题目和选项,再回原文定位,可以提高速度)
4. 带着题目定位词和选项一起到原文找相关信息,并选出答案。
  注意:
  1. 此种题型要求考生回顾更多的原文信息,因为三个在原文曾被提及的选项可能分布在一个段落或几个段落里。
  2. 此题型的正确选项为:not mentioned in the passage or not true according to the passage
  3. 解答完题目后,考生要检查自己的答案,以确保正确回答了这道题目。
  下面通过几个例子来示范这种题目的答题步骤及方法。
The final major human cause of desertification is soil salinization resulting from over-irrigation. Excess water from irrigation sinks down into the water table. If no drainage system exists, the water table rises, bringing dissolved salts to the surface. The water evaporates and the salts are left behind, creating a white crustal layer that prevents air and water from reaching the underlying soil. 
All of the following are mentioned in the passage as contributing to desertification EXCEPT
○ soil erosion
○ global warming
○ insufficient irrigation
○ the raising of livestock


  解析:首先本题题干中出现标志性词“EXCEPT”,因此我们断定此题为否定排除题;接下来读选项,而选项中均为词组,这些词组即为关键词;在原文定位,我们可以在第二段中定位到“Desertification is accomplished primarily through the loss of stabilizing natural vegetation and the subsequent accelerated erosion of the soil by wind and water…”,因此,第一个选项排除;继续定位,在文章第四段我们可以定位到“In some regions,the increase in desert is occurring largely as the result of a trend toward drier climatic conditions. Continued gradual global warming has produced an increase in aridity for some areas over the past few thousand years.”在第七段我们可以定位到“The raising of livestock is a major economic activity in semiarid lands, where gases…”在第九段我们可以定位到“The final major human cause of desertification is soil salinization resulting from over-irrigation.”因此,第二选项和第四选项我们都可以排除掉,而第三选项和原文中内容相反,也就是“not true according to the passage”,因此答案为第三选项。此题中被原文中提及的选项分布在几个段落里。
 通过上面的讲解和例题展示,否定排除题,你会了吗?
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