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雅思阅读    IELTS Pro forma
2018年6月23日雅思阅读考题回忆
发布日期 :2018.07.02    浏览次数:1098 次

2018年6月23日雅思阅读考题回忆

——华盟教育雅思部

总体评析  

今天考试配对题仍然占了很大的比重,不过也有最简单的填空题搭配着,所以考试的总体难度不高。其实,第二篇和第三篇阅读都是旧文章,以前练习过相关题目的同学占有很大优势。

Passage 1

新旧

题材

文章标题

题型

考古

Dinner of Rome 2000 Years Ago

判断7+填空6

文章大意

文章主要讲罗马人就餐和宗教的联系,在文学场景中的体现,以及餐厅、饭桌的布置等。

详细回忆

 (以下题目为部分回忆,答案可能有误,仅供参考)

1. NG

2. T

3. T

4. F

5. F

6. NG

7. T

8. 暂缺

9. affluence

10. decorative

11. spoon

12. pottery

13. 暂缺

类似文章

暂无

 

Passage 2

新旧

题材

文章标题

题型

社会类

Amateur Naturalists

段落信息配对6+填空4+选择3

内容回忆

业余自然爱好者对科学做出的贡献、测量方法有可能不专业,衡量业余自然爱好者测量方法的新技术等。

详细回忆

(以下题目为部分回忆,答案可能有误,仅供参考)

1. B

2. C

3. E

4. G

5. H

6. A

7. beekeeping

8. life cycles

9. competition

10. droughts

11. C

12. D

13. A

类似文章

Amateur Naturalists

You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage below.

A

Tim Sparks slides a small leather-bound notebook out of an envelope. The books yellowing pages contain beekeeping notes made between 1941 and 1969 by the late Walter Coates of Kilworth, Leicestershire. He adds it to his growing pile of local journals, birdwatchers’ lists and gardening diaries, "We’re uncovering about one major new record each month,” he says, “I still get surprised." Around two centuries before Coates, Robert Marsham, a landowner from Norfolk in the east of England, began recording the life cycles of plants and animals on his estate when the first wood anemones flowered, the dates on which the oaks burst into leaf and the rooks began nesting. Successive Marshams continued compiling these notes for 211 years.

B

Today, such records are being put to uses that their authors could not possibly have expected. These data sets, and others like them, ire proving invaluable to ecologists interested in the timing of biological events, or phenology. By combining the records with climate data, researchers can reveal how, for example, changes in temperature affect the arrived of spring, allowing ecologists to make improved predictions about the impact of climate change. A small band of researchers is combing through hundreds of years of records taken by thousands of amateur naturalists. And more systematic projects have also started up, producing on overwhelming response. "The amount of interest is almost frightening," says Sparks, a climate researcher at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire.

C

Sparks became aware of the army of "closet phenologists", as he describes them, when a retiring colleague gave him the Marsham records. He now spends much of his time following leads from one historical data set to another. As news of his quest spreads, people tip him off to other historical records, and more amateur phenologists come out of their closets. The British devotion to recording and collecting makes his job easier - one man from: Kent sent him 30 years’ worth of kitchen calendar, on which he had noted the date that his neighbour’s magnolia tree flowered.

D

Other researchers have unearthed data from equally odd sources. Rafe Sargarin recently studied records of a betting contest in which participants attempt to guess the exact time at which a specially erected wooden tripod will fall through the surface of a thawing river. The competition has taken place annually on the Tenana River in Alaska since 1917, and analysis of the results showed that the thaw now arrives five days earlier than it did when the contest began.

E

Overall, Such records have helped to show that, compared with 20 years ago, a raft of natural events now occur earlier across much of the northern hemisphere, from the opening of leaves to the return of birds from migration and the emergence of butterflies from hibernation . The data can also hint at how nature will change in the future. Together with models of climate change, amateurs’ records could help guide conservation. Terry Root, an ecologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, has collected birdwatchers’ counts of wildfowl taken between 1955 and 19% on seasonal ponds in the American. Midwest and combined them with climate data and models of future warming. Her analysis shows that the increased droughts that the models predict could halve the breeding populations at the ponds. "The number of waterfowl in North America will most probably drop significantly with global warming," she says.

F

But not all professionals are happy to use amateur data. "A lot of scientists won’t touch them, they say they’re too full of problems," says Root. Because different observers can have different ideas of what constitutes, for example, an open snowdrop. The biggest concern with ad hoc observations is how carefully and systematically they were taken," says Mark Schwartz of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, who studies the interactions between plants and climate. "We need to know pretty precisely what a person’s been observing - if they just say ’I noted when the leaves came out’, it might not be that useful." Measuring the onset of autumn can be particularly problematic because deciding when leaves change color is a more subjective process than noting when they appear.

G

Overall, most phenologists are positive about the contribution that amateurs can make. "They get at the raw power of science: careful observation of the natural world," says Sagarin. But the professionals also acknowledge the need for careful quality control. Root, for example, tries to gauge the quality of an amateur archive by interviewing its collector. "You always have to worry things as trivial as vacations can affect measurement. I disregard a lot of records because they’re not rigorous enough," she says. Others suggest that the right statistics can iron out some of the problems with amateur data. Together with colleagues at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, environmental scientist Arnold van Vliet is developing statistical techniques to account for the uncertainty in amateur phenological data. With the enthusiasm of amateur phenologists evident from past records, professional researchers are now trying to create standardized recording schemes for future efforts. They hope that well-designed studies will generate a volume of observations: large enough to drown out the idiosyncrasies of individual recorders. The data are cheap to collect, and can provide breadth in space, time and range of species. "It’s very difficult to collect data on a large geographical scale without enlisting an army of observers," says Root.

H

Phenology also helps to drive home messages about climate change. "Because the public understand these records, they accept them," says Sparks. It can also illustrate potentially unpleasant consequences, he adds, such as the finding that more rat infestations are reported to local councils in warmer years. And getting people involved is great for public relations. "People are thrilled to think that the data they’ve been collecting as a hobby can be used for something scientific -it empowers them," says Root.

Questions 14-19

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet

14. Definition of Phenology introduced

15. How Sparks first became aware of amateur records

16. Records of a competition providing clues for climate change

17. A description of using amateur records to make predictions

18. How people reacted to their involvement in data collection

19. A description of a very old record compiled by generations of amateur naturalists

Questions 20-22

Complete the sentences below with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 34-36 on your answer sheet.

20. In Waiter Coates’ records, there are plenty of information of .

21. Robert Marsham is well-known for noting animals and plants’ .

22. The number of waterfowl in North America decreases because of increased according to some phenologists.

Questions 23-26

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.

Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet

23 Why do a lot of scientists question the amateurs’ data?

A. Data collection is not professional

B. Amateur observers are careless.

C. Amateur data is not reliable sometimes.

D. They have one-sided work experience

24 Example of leaves Mark Schwartz used to explain that?

A. Amateur records arc not reliable at all.

B. Amateur records arc not well organized.

C. Some details are very difficult to notice.

D. Valuable information is accurate one.

25 What suggestion of scientists for the usage of amateur data?

A. Use modified and better approaches.

B. Only Observation data is valuable.

C. Use original materials instead of changed ones.

D. Method of data collection is the most important.

26 What’s the implication of phenology for ordinary people?

A. It enriches the knowledge of the public.

B. It improves ordinary people’s relations with scientists.

C. It encourages people to collect more animal information.

D. It arouses public awareness about climate change.

 

Passage 3

新旧

题材

文章标题

题型

心理实验类

Optimistic Research

句子配对5+选择5+判断4

内容回忆

人们更倾向于想象美好的未来,乐观的情况更多于悲观的情况,文中讲到了一个实验。

详细回忆

(以下题目为部分回忆,答案可能有误,仅供参考)

1. H

2. F

3. A

4. C

5. E

6. A

7. C

8. A

9. A

10. C

11. NG

12. N

13. N

14. Y

类似文章

Optimism and Health

Mindset (心态) is all. How you start the year will set the template for 2009, and two scientifically backed character traits hold the key: optimism and resilience (if the prospect leaves you feeling pessimistically spineless, the good news is that you can significantly boost both of these qualities).

A

Faced with 12 months of plummeting economics and rising human distress, staunchly maintaining a rosy view might seem deucedly Pollyannaish. But here we encounter the optimism paradox. As Brice Pitt, an emeritus professor of the psychiatry of old age at Imperial College, London, told me: optimists are unrealistic. Depressive people see things as they really are, but that is a disadvantage from an evolutionary point of view. Optimism is a piece of evolutionary equipment that carried us through millennia of setbacks.

BIt has been known that optimistic has something to do with the long life, and optimists have plenty to be happy about. In other words, if you can convince yourself that things will get better, the odds of it happening will improve - because you keep on playing the game. In this light, optimism "is a habitual way of explaining your setbacks to yourself’, reports Martin Seligman, the psychology professor and author of Learned Optimism. The research shows that when times get tough, optimists do better than pessimists - they succeed better at work, respond better to stress, suffer fewer depressive episodes and achieve more personal goals.

CStudies also show that belief can help with the financial pinch. Chad Wallens, a social forecaster at the Henley Centre who surveyed middle-class Britons’ beliefs about income, has found that “he people who feel wealthiest, and those who feel poorest, actually have almost the same amount of money at their disposal. Their attitudes and behaviour patterns, however, are different from one another.”

DOptimists have something else to be cheerful about – in general, they are more robust. For example, a study of 660 volunteers by the psychologist Dr Becca Levy, found that thinking positively adds an average of 7 years to your life. Other American research claims to have identified a physical mechanism behind this. A Harvard Medical School study of 670 men found that the optimists have significantly better lung function. The lead author, Dr Rosalind Wright, believes that attitude somehow strengthens the immune system. "Preliminary studies on heart patients suggest that, by changing a person’s outlook, you can improve their mortality risk," she says.

EFew studies have tried to ascertain the proportion of optimists in the world. But a 1995 nationwide survey conducted for the American magazine Adweek found that about half the population counted themselves as optimists, with women slightly more apt than men (53 per cent versus 48 per cent) to see the sunny side.

FAlthough some optimists may be accurate in their positive beliefs about the future, others may be unrealistic-their optimism is misplaced, according to American Psychological Association. Research shows that some smokers exhibit unrealistic optimism by underestimating their relative chances of experiencing disease. An important question is whether such unrealistic optimism is associated with risk-related attitudes and behavior. We addressed this question by investigating if one’s perceived risk of developing lung cancer, over and above one’s objective risk, predicted acceptance of myths and other beliefs about smoking. Hierarchical regressions showed that those individuals who were unrealistically optimistic were more likely to endorse beliefs that there is no risk of lung cancer if one only smokes for a few years and that getting lung cancer depends on one’s genes.

GOf course, there is no guarantee that optimism will insulate you from the crunch’s worst effects, but the best strategy is still to keep smiling and thank your lucky stars. Because (as every good sports coach knows) adversity is character-forming-so long as you practise the skills of resilience. Research among tycoons and business leaders shows that the path to success is often littered with failure: a record of sackings, bankruptcies and blistering castigations. But instead of curling into a foetal ball beneath the coffee table, they resiliency pick themselves up, learn from their pratfalls and march boldly towards the next opportunity.

HThe American Psychological Association defines resilience as the ability to adapt in the face of adversity, trauma or tragedy. A resilient person may go through difficulty and uncertainty, but he or she will doggedly bounce back.

IOptimism is one of the central traits required in building resilience, say Yale University investigators in the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. They add that resilient people learn to hold on to their sense of humour and this can help them to keep a flexible attitude when big changes of plan arc warranted. The ability to accept your lot with equanimity also plays an important role, the study adds.

JOne of the best ways to acquire resilience is through experiencing a difficult childhood, the sociologist Steven Stack reports in the Journal of Social Psychology. For example, short men are less likely to commit suicide than tall guys, he says, because shorties develop psychological defense skills to handle the bullies and mickey-taking that their lack of stature attracts. By contrast, those who enjoyed adversity-free youths can get derailed by setbacks later on because they’ve never been inoculated against agro.

KLearning to overcome your fears. If you are handicapped by having had a happy childhood, then practising proactive optimism can help you to become more resilient. Studies of resilient people show that they take more risks; they court failure and learn not to fear it. And despite being thick-skinned, resilient types are also more open than average to other people. Bouncing through knock backs is all part of the process. It’s about optimistic risk-taking - being confident that people will like you. Simply smiling and being warm to people can help. It’s an altruistic path to self-interest - and if it achieves nothing else, it will reinforce an age-old adage: hard times can bring out the best in you.

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